A language presupposes that all the individual users possess the organs.
Henceforth, language studies were no longer directed merely towards correcting grammar.
A linguistic system is a series of differences of sound combined with a series of differences of ideas.
Nearly all institutions, it might be said, are based on signs, but these signs do not directly evoke things.
Everyone, left to his own devices, forms an idea about what goes on in language which is very far from the truth.
The critical principle demanded an examination, for instance, of the contribution of different periods, thus to some extent embarking on historical linguistics.
The first of these phases is that of grammar, invented by the Greeks and carried on unchanged by the French. It never had any philosophical view of a language as such.
Within speech, words are subject to a kind of relation that is independent of the first and based on their linkage: these are syntagmatic relations, of which I have spoken.
Whitney wanted to eradicate the idea that in the case of a language we are dealing with a natural faculty; in fact, social institutions stand opposed to natural institutions.
The very special place that a language occupies among institutions is undeniable, but there is much more to be said-, a comparison would tend rather to bring out the differences.